is Professor of Iranian History, University of St Andrews (since 2004), and Associate Fellow, Middle East Program, Royal Institute of International Affairs (since 1998). He previously lectured at SOAS (1997-98), Exeter (2004), and Durham universities (1998-2003), after having received his PhD, in Political Studies, from SOAS in 1998 (MA, War Studies, 1990, King’s College; BA, History, London University College, 1989). He has written extensively, mostly on the pre and post-revolutionary periods of Iran’s twentieth century, but also on the nineteenth century. He is the author of Crisis of Authority: The Iranian Presidential Election of 2009 (Chatham House, 2010), Iran under Ahmadinejad: the Politics of Confrontation (Adelphi Paper, 2007), Confronting Iran: the Failure of US Foreign Policy and the Roots of Mistrust (Hurst, 2006), Iran, Islam and Democracy (RIIA, 2000, 2nd ed. 2006), The History of Modern Iran Since 1921 (Longman, 2003, 2nd ed. 2007). Forthcoming books are The Politics of Nationalism in Modern Iran (Cambridge University Press, 2011), A History of Early Modern Persia, 1797-1921 (Longman, 2012), Iran (Harvard University Press, 2014), and, as editor, The Cambridge History of Iran, vol. 8, The Islamic Republic. His articles include “Iran under Ahmadinejad: Populism and its Malcontents,” International Affairs (2008), “Iran and the US in the Shadow of 9/11,” Iranian Studies (2006), “Persia in the Western Imagination,” in V. Martin, ed., Anglo-Iranian Relations since 1800 (Routledge, 2005), “Iranian Nationalism,” in Y. Choueri, ed., Companion to the History of the Middle East (Blackwell, 2005), “Cultural Transmutations: the Dialectics of Globalisation in Contemporary Iran,” in T. Dodge et al., eds. Globalisation and the Middle East (RIIA, 2002), “The Myth of the White Revolution: Mohammad Reza Shah, ‘Modernisation’ and the Consolidation of Power,” Middle Eastern Studies (2001), “Iranian Foreign Policy under Khatami,” in A. Ehteshami et al., eds., Iran and Eurasia (Ithaca Press, 2000), and “The Militarisation of the Caspian,” in H. Amirahmadi, ed., The Caspian Region at a Crossroad (St Martin’s Press, 2000). His professional service and administrative experience include: Director, Institute of Iranian Studies, University of St Andrews (since 2006); member of the Academic Committee, Iran Heritage Foundation (since 2008); council member and Modern Iran Project Manager, British Institute for Persian Studies (since 2006); committee member, British Academy, Middle East External Relations Panel (since 2008); and external MA and PhD examiner at the universities of Edinburgh, Manchester, and SOAS, amongst others.